Metatranskriptomik der Mikrobiota aus der menschlichen Achselhöhle(S. 494)
Andreas Tauch, Eugenie Fredrich, Christina Ander, Jens Stoye, Iris Brune
Axillary malodor is formed in a biotransformation of initially odorless sweat components by members of the human skin microbiota. Meta - transcriptomics of the human armpit microbiota allows for the analysis of the active microbial community on taxonomical and functional levels. Taxonomic profiles of the active axillary microbiota of three males revealed an unexpected diversity of staphylococci and corynebacteria probably contributing to body odor formation.
In Deo veritas – Entstehung und Verhinderung humanen Körpergeruchs(S. 497)
Markus Egert, Rainer Simmering, Bernhard Banowski, Roland Breves
For many customers underarm perspiration and body odor are important topics. The armpit microbiota metabolizes odorless sweat to malodorous compounds. A better understanding of composition and activity of the human armpit microbiota is crucial for a deeper understanding of the formation of human body odor. We provide an overview of the human armpit microbiota and its odor-releasing enzyme activities and discuss strategies supporting the development of innovative and more effective deo - dorants.
Regulation, Aufbau und Funktion einer bakteriellen Nanomaschine(S. 500)
Marc Erhardt, Hanna M. Singer
The bacterial flagellum is a molecular nanomachine used for locomotion. In Salmonella, the assembly of the flagellum is a highly coordinated and regulated process. On top of a complex regulatory network resides the flagellar master operon flhDC. Many environmental signals are integrated on the level of flhDC expression, including transcriptional cross talk between the virulence and flagellar systems that contributes to the correct spatiotemporal expression of the different virulence factors during the infection process.
Neuartige biopharmazeutische Wirkstoffe auf der Grundlage von Lipocalinen(S. 503)
Arne Skerra, Antonia Richter
Anticalins constitute a class of novel binding proteins derived from the human lipocalin scaffold that possess a robust and simple protein architecture providing a set of four hypervariable loops with the ability for tailored molecular recognition similar to antibodies. Applying rational protein engineering in combination with advanced combinatorial library selection techniques, lipocalin variants with specific and tight binding properties for prescribed targets can be generated.
Lokalisierung und Identifikation kleiner Moleküle in biologischen Proben(S. 506)
Hanna Bednarz, Karin Gorzolka, Karsten Niehaus
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) opens the unique possibility to localize a broad number of small molecules in entire plant organs or in cryo - sections. In tomato the antioxidant flavonoid quercetin was localized in the outer parts of the fruit while the alkaloid α-tomatine was distributed all over the tissues. In germinating barley seedlings the antifungal horda - tines and their glycol conjugates could be localized. The combination of MSI and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was ideal in the identification of novel compounds.
Angestaubt, aber nicht eingerostet – der Bioreporter LacZ(S. 510)
Jürgen Lassak, Luitpold Fried, Kirsten Jung
β-galactosidase encoded by lacZ remains a popular reporter enzyme. Here, we present a convenient tool box to facilitate rapid construction of reporter lacZ fusions. The first tool enables the simple generation of chromosomally encoded reporters within the Escherichia coli lac operon using Red®/ET® recombination. The second tool allows the introduction of lacZ reporter fusions into the chromosome by a single-crossover method. The third tool comprises four pBBR1-based broad-host-range vectors to derive transcriptional and translational lacZ fusions.
β-Tryptase-Inhibitoren als Wirkstoffe gegen allergisches Asthma(S. 517)
Norbert Schaschke, Christian P. Sommerhoff
Human β-tryptase is a mast cell-specific serine protease with trypsin-like activity that is regarded to play a key role in mast cell-related disorders such as asthma. Thus, to block these disease-associated processes mediated by this protease, in the last decade a diversity of β-tryptase inhibitors has been developed, some of which are promising lead compounds for clinical development.
Funktionelle Charakterisierung kurzer und langer nicht-codierender RNAs(S. 521)
Gunter Meister, Markus Kretz
MicroRNAs and long non-coding RNAs are crucial regulators of gene expression and play a role in numerous diseases and cancers. Understanding their impact on tissue homeostasis and tumorigenesis requires identification of all non-coding RNAs relevant for this process. Here, we will give examples for the analysis of non-coding RNAs starting from detection and leading to functional characterization.
Nachweis von Bakterien, Pilzen und Viren im Hochdurchsatz(S. 524)
Nicole Fischer, Adam Grundhoff
Next generation sequencing (NGS) not only provides a powerful tool for genome-wide studies of host-pathogen interactions, but also allows the unbiased detection of known as well as novel pathogens of fungal, bacterial and viral origin in clinical samples. Given this, NGS-based diagnostic approaches have a unique potential to fundamentally improve the level of preparedness for infectious disease outbreaks. Here, we describe the advantages and limitations of current approaches for the identification of pathogens by NGS.
DNA-Sequenzierung in der mikrobiellen Diversitätsforschung(S. 528)
Thorsten Stoeck, Sabine Filker, Lea Weinisch
Microorganisms hold key roles in food webs and biogeochemical cycles. The identification of these organisms, their diversity and distribution patterns are, therefore, central topics in microbial ecology. The introduction of sequencing strategies has revolutionized the field of microbial ecology and paved the road for in-depth molecular diversity studies. Here we describe the application of DNA-sequencing strategies to study the diversity, evolution and ecological function of microorganisms in marine environments.
Anwendungen & Produkte
Lasergesteuerte Probenpräparation von Hartgeweben und Biomaterialen(S. 538)
Heiko Richter, Diego Fernando Ramirez Ojeda, Fabian Will
In tissue engineering multiple tasks have to be solved: from cell isolation for cultivation to histological sections of implants in animal models. However, it still lacks proper tools to section and image biomaterials and tissue for histology, 3D-culture or further biochemical analysis. This article describes the use of ultrashort pulse laser technology for sectioning for sample preparation. Integration of imaging technologies facilitates deep tissue imaging and guided cutting.
Effizienter Molekültransfer in lebende Zellen mithilfe der Membranfusion(S. 540)
Bernd Hoffmann, Agnes Csiszár, Nils Hersch, Roman Zantl
Both the efficient transfer of functional biomolecules (i. e., peptides, proteins, and lipids) into living cells and cell surface functionalization are major biotechnological challenges that are imperative for cell biology research. With the latest developments in the field of fusogenic nanocarriers, we can now achieve the highly efficient and fast incorporation of almost any molecule into living mammalian cells and tissues, without any change to the cell growth conditions.
Membranproteinsynthese: Zellfrei geht’s schneller!(S. 570)
Rita Sachse, Robert B. Quast, Andrei Sonnabend, Marlitt Stech, Stefan Kubick
Difficult to express membrane proteins represent an increasing amount of therapeutic molecules. Considerable optimization is often required for downstream applications such as assay development and functional characterization. Cell-free systems emerged as powerful tools for the synthesis of structurally and functionally divergent membrane proteins. Vesicle-based eukaryotic cell-free systems enable co-translational protein translocation and posttranslational modifications. Hence, these systems provide a multitude of options for membrane protein studies.
Generierung von ≤ 3,2 Mio. Proteinvarianten in fokussiertem Mutageneseexperiment(S. 574)
Alexander Dennig, Anna Joëlle Ruff, Ulrich Schwaneberg
Simultaneous multi site-saturation mutagenesis enables to reshape binding pockets especially when cooperative amino acids are targeted, which affect activity and/or selectivity of enzymes. Simultaneous saturation of five positions with OmniChange generates up to 3.2 million different variants in one experiment in a robust and technically simple protocol. OmniChange generates a diversity, which is challenging to be screened by current screening technologies.
Biotechnologie 2.0 – Impfstoffe und Medikamente auf Basis von mRNA(S. 577)
The available vast body of genetic information may be exploited for treatment of disease either by delivery of proteins or the genetic information itself. Any protein can be expressed in vivo from mRNA. Yet, its production process is independent of the encoded protein. mRNA is thus a powerful therapeutic agent more flexible than protein and it is also decisively safer than competing nucleotide-based approaches. Inevitably, mRNA has emerged as a unique basis for molecular therapy.
Karriere, Köpfe & Konzepte
Wissensmanagement für Systembiologie und -medizin(S. 580)
Klaus Heumann, Sascha Losko, Dieter Maier
The evolution of bioinformatics from tool development to building know - ledge management solutions is a game changer across the life sciences. Systems biology is the foundation. The convergence of experimental and computational techniques towards a system discipline can be observed in synthetic biology and systems medicine. In both areas, tangible results can be presented with utility to business and patient objectives.