Thecaphora thlaspeos – ein Brandpilz spezialisiert auf Modellpflanzen(S. 498)
Ronny Kellner, Vera Göhre
Smut fungi are plant pathogens that infect important crops such as maize or potato. Due to the genetic complexity of their hosts, molecular studies of plant responses to infection by smut fungi are challenging. The fungus Thecaphora thlaspeos is unique as it shares many features with the wellstudied maize pathogen Ustilago maydis, but is specialised on Brassicaceae hosts. This enables the exploitation of genetic resources of both host and pathogen, to characterise mechanisms of endophytic growth and smut virulence in dicot plants.
Wenn Stränge reißen – Wege der DNA-Doppelstrangbruch-Reparatur(S. 502)
Lisa-Marie Krieger, George Iliakis
The most severe DNA-damage is the double-strand break (DSB) which, if not processed correctly, can lead to cell death or cancer. Cells have evolved two fundamentally different DSB repair mechanisms. Homologous recombination repair utilizing a homologous template and nonhomologous end joining operating without template and without, or with only minimal, homology requirements. Knowledge of these mechanisms at the molecular levels will advance our understanding of cancer development and will pave the way to new strategies for treating cancer.
Neue Isoformen für alte Enzyme durch translationalen readthrough(S. 506)
Malate and lactate dehydrogenase (MDH and LDH) are linked to a new and unusual class of proteins in mammals: proteins with an extension generated by translational readthrough and with a functional peroxisomal targeting signal in the extension. The presence of MDH and LDH in the peroxisome suggests a solution to an old question, that is how peroxisomes recycle their redox equivalents and how they transport them to the cytosol and ultimately to mitochondria.
mRNA-Lokalisation: Wenn RNAs auf Reise gehen …(S. 510)
Ralf-Peter Jansen, Dierk Niessing
Posttranscriptional gene regulation is of great importance for a range of cellular functions. The active transport of transcripts and their local translation presents a mechanism important for embryo- and neurogenesis, neuronal plasticity, and stem cell differentiation. Impaired localization of transcripts result in erroneous embryogenesis, defective cell division, and neurological diseases. The DFG Research Unit FOR2333 has been established to mechanistically understand the processes of mRNA localization.
Wie RNA die Genregulation beeinflusst(S. 513)
Iana Kim, Vladyslava Gorbovytska, Claus-D. Kuhn
The first described non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), microRNAs, regulate mRNA fate in a post-transcriptional manner. With the advent of modern high-throughput methods many novel classes of ncRNAs were described. In contrast to microRNAs, most of these regulate the transcription process itself and hence are of fundamental biological importance. Work in our laboratory addresses how transcriptional regulation by ncRNAs influences biological processes ranging from regeneration to neuronal plasticity.
Kurze Peptide regulieren die Aktivität bakterieller Ribosomen(S. 516)
Carolin Seefeldt, Britta Seip
In all living cells ribosomes are responsible for the translation of genetic information into the corresponding protein sequence. This central position does not only make them a valuable target for antibiotics but also offers great possibilities to regulate gene expression. This article addresses two distinct mechanisms of ribosomal activity regulation: via short nascent peptides (regulation in cis) and via proline-rich antimicrobial peptides (regulation in trans).
Cohesin – ein Proteinring für Genomstabilität und Chromatinfaltung(S. 519)
Kerstin S. Wendt
The cohesin complex has evolved as major player for structuring the chromatin fiber with roles in chromosome segregation, chromatin architecture, DNA damage repair and gene regulation. This article summarizes the latest discoveries and models for cohesin function and also reviews implications of the cohesin complex in developmental syndromes and cancer.
Blanchieren vereinfacht die Reinigung rekombinanter Proteine aus Pflanzen(S. 522)
Johannes Felix Buyel
Plants can be an alternative to mammalian cell cultures in terms of recombinant protein expression due to low upstream production costs and a good safety profile. However, product purification can be challen - ging due to the abundance of host cell proteins (HCPs) in raw plant extracts and which have to be removed. Here we report different heat treatment methods, e. g. based on leaf blanching. This can facilitate subsequent downstream processing, and thus has the potential to reduce production costs.
Einzelzell-RNA-Sequenzierung beleuchtet den Infektionsprozess(S. 525)
Jörg Vogel, Antoine-Emmanuel Saliba, Alexander J. Westermann
Single-cell RNA-seq has revolutionized our understanding of cellular heterogeneity in a wide spectrum of biological processes. Pioneering studies suggest complex mechanisms and division of labour employed by the bacterial pathogen Salmonella to subvert host cell functions during infection. Here we describe some of our findings from single-cell RNA-seq studies that have revealed and characterized heterogeneity between individual cells infected with this intracellular pathogen, and outline future challenges in this burgeoning field.
Automatisiertes tube storage-System für Bioanalytik und Diagnostik(S. 531)
Kerstin Thurow, Steffen Junginger, Thomas Roddelkopf
Actual studies show a growing demand for automation solutions in single sample handling in contrast to the parallel microplate based handling in classical biological applications. The efficiency of life science laboratories can be increased with the introduction of innovative and flexible sample handling systems. This includes the development of tube handling systems including a detection of the tube type, the liquid level and phase detection.
Beschleunigte Bioprozessentwicklung im automatisierten Mikromaßstab(S. 536)
Marco Oldiges, Holger Morschett, Stephan Noack
Modern bioprocess development includes extensive screening tasks, but many tools tackling the resulting combinatorial explosion do not provide production scale relevant conditions. Thus, novel technologies are needed for scalable data acquisition via incorporation of miniaturization, automation and digitalization. The Microbial Bioprocess Lab – a Helmholtz Innovation Lab strives at designing such disruptive technologies and to catalyze their translation from science into industrial application.
Entwicklung komplexer Screeningverfahren am Beispiel von Hsp90(S. 540)
Frank Stahl, Sabine Helmsen, Christin Ahlbrecht, Vjacesiavs Hrupins, Carsten Zeilinger
The protein target-microarray assay is a hitherto underestimated method in the investigation of protein-ligand/inhibitor and protein-protein/inhibitor-interactions. It is a versatile and adaptable method that can also be used in the diagnostic and individual medicine. Following, examples for target-oriented tests with high potential for development are demonstrated.
Anwendungen & Produkte
mRNA-basierte Therapien für eine passive Immunisierung(S. 554)
The delivery of genetic information to enable the body to produce its own tailored medicine is a promising alternative to recombinant protein therapies. As such, the administration of mRNA offers a potent, flexible and apparently safe platform. Here we discuss the principles and perspectives of mRNA-based therapies focusing on its application in the field of passive immunization in general and for infectious diseases in particular.
Ein gefährlicher Trend: Zelllinien mit falscher Identität(S. 559)
Jessica Wagener, Nadine Mellies
In the late 1960s the first report on cross-contamination of a human cell line was published. Almost 50 years later increasing data about crosscontaminated and misidentified cell lines reveal a continuing problem and an alarming trend in cell culture laboratories worldwide.
Stoffliche Nutzung von Biogasabfällen(S. 597)
Petra Schönicke, Birgit Kamm, Miriam Padrock
Treatment of solid waste from biogas production using aqueous ammonia at temperatures of 180 to 200 °C is a process for an alternative utilization which is applicable in agriculture. Lignin and dissolved carbohydrates and salts are formed as products. The fermentability of these monomeric sugars containing solution could be demonstrated with yeasts for ethanol and with bacteria for butanol.
Karriere, Köpfe & Konzepte
Faszination Genetik(S. 599)
Am 29. Juli 2017 verstarb Prof. em. Dr. Rolf Knippers im Alter von 81 Jahren. Wir verlieren mit ihm einen wichtigen Wegbereiter und engagierten Vermittler des Fachgebietes „Molekulare Genetik“.