Zirkuläre RNAs: neue Spieler im Kreise der Genregulation(S. 12)
Laura Santer, Christian Bär, Thomas Thum
High throughput whole transcriptome sequencing led to the discovery of a new class of non-coding RNAs: circular RNAs (circRNAs). Such singlestranded continuous loop RNAs exist for thousands of genes. Here, we present an overview of circRNA discovery and formation. We sum up some circRNA detection methods and highlight different molecular mechanisms of action. However, circRNA functional characterization is still at its very beginning and thus an increasing research field in our and other groups.
Das molekulare Lineal: Wie entstehen Fettsäuren richtiger Länge?(S. 16)
Karthik S. Paithankar, Martin Grininger
Fatty acids are important biopolymers that are synthesized in a cyclic reaction. After each cycle, the synthesizing enzymes need to decide whether the growing chain is elongated in another cycle or released as mature fatty acid. Recent research has shed light onto the decision makers of fatty acid chain length and has also achieved the manipulation of chain length control for the production of the technologically interesting medium-chain-length fatty acids.
Wie die Zelle ihre Kernporen aufbaut(S. 20)
Paola de Magistris, Rabia Suluyayla, Wolfram Antonin
Nuclear pore complexes mediate the exchange of macromolecules between cytoplasm and nuclear interior. These complexes assemble from more than 500 individual nucleoporins and integrate into the double membrane structure of the nuclear envelope at the end of mitosis and in interphase via different pathways. Despite their universal function in all nucleated cells mutations in nucleoporins cause tissue specific disease phenotypes but the underlying molecular mechanisms are often unclear.
Lactobacillus – Alleskönner für die Gesundheit?(S. 23)
Be it intestinal health, skin care, reduction of allergies, or proven pro - biotics for health: almost everywhere we come across the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus. It seems this microorganism is an all-rounder. What is its impact on health and what scientific evidences can be found? An attempt to take stock.
Unser täglich Brot: Helfer in der Lebensmittelfermentation(S. 27)
Knut J. Heller, Charles M. A. P. Franz, Mareike Wenning, Wilhelm Bockelmann, Horst Neve
Lactobacilli are involved in fermentation of milk-, plant-, or meat-based food products. They metabolize hexose sugars to lactic acid during fermentation, leading to a decrease in the pH. This preservative effect contributes to the digestibility of the raw material and improves the organo leptic properties of the product. Food fermentations are widely utilized in modern food production, with lactobacilli as defined starter cultures, specifically in the production of fermented raw sausages or milk products.
Naturstoffproduzenten Myxobakterien: Wir sehen nur die Spitze des Eisbergs(S. 31)
Kathrin I. Mohr, Joachim Wink
The discovery of new antibiotics is mandatory with regard to increasing number of pathogen resistances. One approach is the search for new antibiotic producers in nature. At the HZI myxobacteria are successfully isolated and screened for antibiotic production since decades. However, recent studies revealed that only a very small portion of myxobacteria is cultivable. The cultivation of the hitherto uncultivable ones as new potential antibiotic-producers is our biggest challenge.
Identifizierung von Substratbindestellen in der γ-Sekretase(S. 34)
Aiko Fukumori, Johannes Trambauer, Lukas P. Feilen, Harald Steiner
The lack of detailed information on the interactions between substrates and enzymes is a major gap in understanding the mechanisms of many proteases. Using the Alzheimer’s disease protease γ-secretase as an example, we show how a previously developed versatile chemical biology approach allows to systematically identify molecular interactions with the enzyme at the amino acid level of the substrate. Furthermore, this approach provides additional mechanistic insights that could also aid in the development of advanced drugs against this key protease.
Stammcharakterisierung mittels on-line-Redesign von Experimenten(S. 39)
Peter Neubauer, Benjamin Haby, Florian Glauche, Sebastian Hans, M. Nicolas Cruz-Bournazou
The reduction of developmental time is a key factor in the biotech industry. To minimize the risk of failure during scale-up, the experimental conditions during screening and process development should resemble the production scale. With modern parallel cultivation systems, extensive culture monitoring and handling is possible. However, next generation facilities should perform adaptive experiments that are “learning” from the data and selecting the next steps are performed. Coupled with modelbased design of experiments, experiments can be re-designed during the runtime.
Automatisierte Quantifizierung proteinöser Partikel(S. 43)
Oliver Bannach, Dieter Willbold, Andreas Kulawik, Christian Zafiu
sFIDA is a platform technology for specific and sensitive quantitation of single proteinaceous particles, such as amyloid-β oligomers as an early biomarker for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Automation improves robustness and performance of the sFIDA technology, which is a prerequisite for high-throughput measurements and future application of the technology in routine AD diagnostics and other applications.
Automatisiertes Klonscreening und Vorhersage der Expressionsleistung(S. 46)
Jochen Büchs, Martina Mühlmann
Directed evolution of proteins provides millions of potentially interesting variants that have to be cultured and screened. To handle this experimental effort, high-throughput screening systems are needed. Nevertheless, these systems are often error-proned due to the lack of online monitoring tools. This gap is closed by additional optical measurement systems that allow a control of the whole process and a prediction of expression performance without using off-line assays.
Anwendungen & Produkte
Qualitätskontrolle von Proteinen durch thermische Entfaltungsprofile(S. 60)
Dennis Breitsprecher, Beate Kern, Amit J. Gupta, Kilian Knoll, Gregor Witte
To counter the current reproducibility crisis, scientists call for new approaches to elevate research quality: simple, precise and informative quality control methods are required to re-establish the trust in biochemical research. Here we introduce a novel approach to test protein quality by rapid thermal unfolding. This new approach yields information about proper folding and functionality of proteins, therefore providing important quality parameters for all protein biochemistry workflows.
Neue in silico-Methoden für die Etablierung einer Grünen Chemie(S. 96)
Sven Jager, Oliver Buß
Many fine chemicals have to meet high demands in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries in terms of optical purity, which can lead to high costs in the production and, in addition, to high amounts of waste. Catalyst optimization is necessary here because the observed substrates are mostly „man-made materials“ and evolution has not yet had time to evolve biocatalysts for this purpose. This is where advanced computa - tional concepts such as simulation or machine learning help to improve such designs in terms of efficiency and sustainability.
Elektrofermentation von Acetoin(S. 100)
Sebastian Beblawy, Thea Bursac, Johannes Gescher
Electrode-assisted fermentation is a new strategy in anaerobic biotechnology. It can be used for reactions in which the average oxidation state of the end product is higher than the substrate. Here we show two applications of an electrode-assisted fermentation for the anoxic production of acetoin. The presented approaches in Shewanella oneidensis and Escherichia coli utilize engineered metabolisms to achieve high product yields of roughly 80 percent under strictly anoxic conditions.