Evolutiv junge europäische Höhlenfische(S. 130)
Jasminca Behrmann-Godel, Anre W. Nolte
A population of loaches (Barbatula spec.) from the Aach Cave in Germany represents the first cave fish in Europe and the northernmost cave fish worldwide. Reasons for the evolution of this fish may include that its cave is fed by surface water that percolates from the upper Danube and enhances the habitat. Cave BarbatulaAstyanax mexicanus).
Das RNA-Exosom – eine molekulare Maschine für den RNA-Abbau(S. 134)
Sebastian Falk, Elena Conti
The exosome is an evolutionary conserved macromolecular complex that degrades RNAs from the 3′ end. It is present both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus, where it degrades different types of RNAs in yeast, human cells and other eukaryotes studied to date. The exosome is involved in the turnover of mRNAs, ncRNA and tRNAs, but also in the surveillance of faulty pre-mRNAs. In addition to its degradative function it is also involved in the controlled processing of e. g. rRNAs.
Built to last – über die intrazelluläre Stabilität von Koenzymen(S. 138)
Johannes Hartl, Julia A. Vorholt
Coenzymes drive key metabolic processes. In the cell, they are challenged by intrinsic chemical reactivity, their high usage, and damaging enzyme promiscuity. Nevertheless, quantification of coenzyme turnover shows that maintenance of most functional coenzymes is independent of degradation, highlighting their longevity, which requires biosynthesis only to compensate for dilution by growth.
Shark attack: Haiantikörper für Biomedizin und Biotechnologie(S. 142)
Doreen Könning, Julius Grzeschik, Steffen C. Hinz, Simon Krah, Martin Empting, Harald Kolmar, Stefan Zielonka
The adaptive immune system of sharks comprises a very interesting antibody isotype named immunoglobulin new antigen receptor (IgNAR). In contrast to classical antibodies, the antigen binding site of the heavy chain only immunoglobulin is formed by a single variable domain, referred to as vNAR (variable domain of IgNAR). Due to its small size combined with a high stability and selectivity to a cognate antigen, vNAR domains emerged as promising molecules for biotechnological and biomedical applications.
Netzbildung als Abwehrstrategie des menschlichen Körpers(S. 146)
Judith Wendler, Heide Brötz-Oesterhelt, Jan Wehkamp
The human organism is protected against commensal and pathogenic microbes by antimicrobial molecules of the innate immune system. The human beta defensin 1 (hBD1) is one of the most prominent antimicrobial molecules and – in contrast to other defensins – constantly expressed by epithelial cells. A recent study displayed a new mechanism of hBD1: Besides bacterial cell envelope damage, it can form a so far unknown net-like structure. Bacteria can be entrapped in these nets providing a physical barrier which is independent of antimicrobial activity.
Kernporen-Transportmaschinen in der Kernhülle und darüber hinaus(S. 149)
Martin Beck, Bernhard Hampölz
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) span the nuclear envelope (NE) and mediate nucleocytoplasmic transport. In metazoan oocytes and early embryos, NPCs are also parts of a sub-compartment of the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER), termed annulate lamellae (AL). We could demonstrate that AL insert into the NE in Drosophila blastoderm embryos. We suggest a topological model in which NE openings are crucial for AL uptake without compromising the permeability barrier of the NE. This mode of pore insertion is developmentally regulated and operates before the induction of zygotic transcription.
Hitzeliebende Mikroorganismen als Produktionsplattform für Biobrennstoffe(S. 152)
Lisa Hitschler, Mirko Basen
Enzymes of thermophilic microorganisms have been studied and used in industry and biotechnology for many years. More recently, thermophiles themselves have been proposed as biocatalysts. Here, we briefly describe advantages of high-temperature fermentations, physiological properties of some thermophiles that use lignocellulose or synthesis gas as substrates, and some recent progress in genetic engineering towards their application.
Bestimmung der Stabilität und Enantioselektivität von Lipasen(S. 156)
Alexander Fulton, Filip Kovacic, Ulrich Schwaneberg, Jörg Pietruszka, Karl-Erich Jaeger
Enzymes play an increasingly important role for biotechnological applications. Hence, it is important to identify, isolate and characterize novel enzymes. Genome and metagenome projects provide a wealth of novel genes; however, functional screening of the respective enzymes is important to identify enzymatically active biocatalysts. Here, we report on screening methods to identify regio-and enantioselective lipases and industrially relevant properties including detergent stability.
Entspannte Moleküle: NMR-Oberflächendaten zur Strukturbestimmung(S. 161)
Christoph Göbl, Tobias Madl
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a well suited method for the analysis of biomolecules in solution and provides unique insights into their structure, dynamics and function. Recent work has provided new approaches to determine surface-accessibility of biomolecules through the addition of freely soluble paramagnetic agents. This pushes the current limits towards more accurate and reliable structures, faster data acquisition and the detailed analysis of dynamic processes.
Native Massenspektrometrie für die Proteinstrukturanalytik(S. 164)
Johannes Heidemann, Boris Krichel, Charlotte Uetrecht
In native mass spectrometry sample handling and measuring conditions are optimized to retain non-covalent interactions, allowing the detailed analysis of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions. Thereby, stoichiometry, structure and dynamics of protein complexes can be studied, also by means of additional gas-phase techniques. Coupling native mass spectrometry to X-ray free-electron lasers potentially opens new routes in protein structure analysis.
Proteomik in kardiovaskulärer Forschung(S. 168)
Sofia Doll, Michael Wierer
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. The molecular mechanisms involved in the underlying pathophysiologies of atherosclerosis and heart related disorders are still poorly known. A closer understanding would greatly benefit clinical outcome predictions and treatment options in future. Two recent studies by Matthias Mann and his team, presented in this review, have addressed cardiovascular diseases using high-resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomics.
Anwendungen & Produkte
Proteinrenaturierung durch Dialyse mit Pipettierautomaten(S. 181)
Raffael Rubick, Johannes Groß, Stefan Kreusch
Sample preparation of proteins is one of the most often tasks in the daily lab work. For example, desalting, rebuffering or renaturation are ne - cessary for purification of protein samples. Dialysis is a suitable method for this issue and new developed dialysis tools facilitate the decision. We show the renaturation of the enzyme activity of trypsin through dialysis with a liquid handling device.
Malatproduktion aus Rohglycerin mit Ustilago(S. 218)
Thiemo Zambanini, Marc Gauert, Guido Merer, Nick Wierckx, Lars M. Blank
The use of biodiesel derived crude glycerol for the production of value added chemicals has been discussed frequently. Current glycerol-based microbial production process often suffers from low rates, titers, and yields, hindering their industrial application. Here we report on the identification and optimization of Ustilago trichophora as promising novel production organism for malic acid from glycerol. All optimization steps presented avoid metabolic engineering resulting in a non-GMO organism.