Ubiquitin-Ligasen: heiße Targets für die Wirkstoffentwicklung?(S. 244)
Lena Ries, Sonja Lorenz
Ubiquitin regulates countless physiological and pathophysiological processes and, as a result, ubiquitination enzymes have emerged as key targets on the drug discovery arena. Here we discuss recent progress in the development of small-molecule inhibitors directed at ubiquitin ligases and highlight novel strategies that may pave the way for rational drug design approaches.
Die Sensorik der Zelle für die Biotechnologie nutzen(S. 247)
Bakterielle Kommunikation: Signale und Signal-inaktivierende Enzyme(S. 251)
Franziska S. Birmes, Susanne Fetzner
Bacteria are social organisms capable of collective behaviors mediated by chemical communication or “quorum sensing” (QS). However, QS signal molecules often have multiple biological functions. Because many bacteri al pathogens regulate virulence gene expression via QS, these systems are attractive targets for antivirulence therapies. One possible strategy to interfere with QS is signal inactivation by quorum quenching enzymes.
Funktionales Proteom-Display zur Identifikation von Biomarkern(S. 256)
Stefan Dübel, Jonas Zantow, Michael Hust
Proteome display allows the functional display of positive selected open reading frames (ORF) of randomly fragmented whole genomes or even metagenomes, thus covering all possible proteins encoded by a pathogen or an entire microbiome. Immunogenic proteins can then be selected from these libraries using patient-derived immunoglobulins (serum). Hence, proteome display allows the identification of immunogenic proteins even if they are only expressed in the host but not in cultivation, as well as the detection of very low expressed and very small immunogens.
Fluoreszierende Proteinsensoren für die Redoxregulation in lebenden Zellen(S. 260)
Bruce Morgan, Markus Schwarzländer
Redox signalling is increasingly recognized to play a crucial role in cellular and organismal physiology. Whilst we have made considerable advances in recent years with respect to understanding the roles and regulation of many different cellular redox species, research remains restricted by a lack of appropriate tools and techniques. Here we discuss the opportunities afforded by recently developed genetically encoded redox sensors and illustrate how they have already advanced our understanding.
qPCR zur quantitativen Validierung von Metagenomdaten(S. 265)
Michael Schloter, Stefanie Schulz, Fabian Bergkemper, Maria de Vries, Anne Schöler
Microorganisms are essential to maintain ecosystem functions and health as they catalyze most keystone processes. Formerly the quantification of key functions was performed by broad ranged primers, which were mainly based on genomes of cultivated microbes. To take advantage of the enormous development of next generation sequencing technologies, we propose to use metagenomic data for the design of new primer systems. Here we describe a two-phasic approach for a targeted and site specific primer design for qPCR.
PCR-basierte Methoden für den Erregernachweis bei Dermatophytosen(S. 270)
Christiane Kupsch, Yvonne Gräser
It is widely accepted that the use of molecular detection methods can improve the diagnosis of bacterial and fungal infections in terms of time, expenditure and sensitivity when compared to conventional identification, based on microscopic examination and cultivation of clinical specimens. Here we describe the capabilities and challenges of DNA-based diagnostics on the example of detecting and differencing infectious agents of dermatophytosis.
Anwendungen & Produkte
Quarzkristall-Mikrowaagen-Technologie als neue bioanalytische Plattform(S. 284)
Paula Braun, Hartmut Drechsel, Albert Sterck, Jin Zhang, Gudrun Prepens, Thomas Reiner, Frank K. Gehring
QCM-D is a surface-sensitive technique for real-time monitoring of biolayers on surfaces with regard to adsorption and desorption, molecular interactions and structural properties. To date, this old-established technique is employed for studies of cellular processes, both, in nanotechno - lo gy and cell biology. Interactions among molecules, cells or between cells and the environment are observable in their natural unaltered states. QCM-D thus provides a unique insight into the complex world of biology.
Biogene Eisenminerale kontrollieren das Umweltverhalten toxischer Metalle(S. 316)
E. Marie Muehe, Andreas Kappler
Some microorganisms oxidize iron(II) and reduce iron(III) for energy gain and growth. These redox processes lead to the formation of microbially formed (biogenic) iron minerals, which are small and have a large surface area for the sorption of other metals. Here, we provide an overview of microbially catalyzed iron redox reactions and the properties of biogenic iron minerals and discuss the consequences of biogenic mineral formation for the environmental fate of toxic metals.