Auswertung von Histonmodifikations-ChIP-Seq-Datensätzen(S. 568)
Johannes Helmuth, Ho-Ryun Chung
The basic repeating unit of chromatin is the nucleosome, which is made of two copies each of the core histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. Histones are frequently post-translationally modified. These histone modifications correlate with functional elements, such as promoters and enhancers, and the activity status of the DNA in a cell-type-specific manner. Here we describe how to determine the localization of histone modifications by the analysis of ChIP-seq data.
Im Alter zählt jeder Zentimeter: Mitochondrien und biologisches Altern(S. 571)
Verena Warnsmann, Andrea Hamann, Prof. Dr. Osiewacz
Biological aging is the progressive physiological impairment leading to death of living beings. In humans, ageing is associated with the development of a number of degenerative diseases. Although intensively studied, there are currently no mechanisms elucidated explaining all aspects of aging. Further research into this direction is needed. Some fungi have been established as convenient experimental models. Mitochondria, the “power plants” of the eukaryotic cell, play a key role in the aging process.
Haplotypsequenzierung menschlicher Genome(S. 577)
Margret Hoehe, Eun-Kyung Suk, Thomas Hübsch
Human genomes are diploid. To link genetic variation to gene function and phenotype, it is essential to determine the specific distribution of variants between the two homologous chromosomes. Here we present a fosmid pool-based next generation sequencing approach to haplotyperesolve whole genomes and its application to the analysis of multiple individuals. In sum, our work provides novel insights into the true nature of genetic variation and exemplifies that haplotyping human genomes is mandatory to fully understand the biology of genes and genomes, identify disease mechanisms and advance individualized medicine.
Proteolyse in der Membran – Schutz für die Proteinhomöostase(S. 582)
Nicole S. Malchus, Marius K. Lemberg
Degradation of proteins is an important and essential mechanism to obtain the functionality and homeostasis of cells. A question that remained enigmatic for a long time was how membrane protein degra - dation is achieved and controlled. The discovery of intramembrane proteases shed new light on this question. These unusual enzymes are capable of hydrolyzing substrates within the hydrophobic membrane environment. It has been shown that intramembrane proteases play, on top of their signalling function, an important role in the degradation and abundance control of membrane proteins.
Bakterien-induzierte Morphogenese der marinen Makroalge Ulva(S. 585)
The morphogenesis of the marine green algae Ulva mutabilis depends on bacteria that release diffusible morphogenetic compounds. Axenic U. mutabilis gametes develop into callus-like colonies without normal cell walls. From the accompanying microbial flora two specific bacteria were isolated, which form a symbiotic tripartite community and induce readily algal morphogenesis. We use axenic algal cultures as a powerful tool to investigate the multiple cross-kingdom interactions on a molecular level.
Do it your (path)way – synthetische Wege zur CO2-Fixierung(S. 590)
Tobias J. Erb, Thomas Schwander
The sustainable conversion of carbon dioxide into value-added compounds is the key to realize a low-carbon economy. Here we discuss the limitation of natural CO2- fixation pathways, describe a strategy to design and realize efficient pathways for CO2- fixation in bottom-up approaches with synthetic biology, and sketch possible future applications of synthetic CO2- fixation.
Das CoLibry-Konzept – ein Werkzeugkasten für die Synthetische Biologie(S. 593)
Olaf Pinkenburg, Johannes Schiffels, Thorsten Selmer
Regardless of size or destination, synthetic biology starts with com - parably small information units, which need to be combined and properly arranged in order to achieve a certain goal. This may be the de novo synthesis of individual genes from oligonucleotides, a shuffling of protein domains in order to create novel biocatalysts, the assembly of multiple enzyme encoding genes in metabolic pathway design, or strain development at the production stage. The CoLibry concept has been designed in order to close the gap between recombinant production of individual genes and genome editing.
Metabolische Regulation des Blutgefäßwachstums(S. 597)
Kerstin Wilhelm, Michael Potente
Recent insights into fundamental aspects of angiogenesis move meta - bolism into the spotlight and highlight the importance of endothelial metabolic adaptation for vascular growth. This notion stems from the realization that endothelial cells (ECs) have to meet the metabolic demands of migration and proliferation when they switch from quiescence to vessel growth. Here we discuss how ECs adapt their metabolism during the angiogenic switch and how the forkhead transcription factor FOXO1 regulates this process.
Genomik des KIR/HLA-Systems und Regulation von NK-Lymphozyten(S. 600)
Beatrix Petersen, Lutz Walter
Natural killer (NK) lymphocytes kill infected and tumorous cells. A balance of stimulatory and inhibitory receptor signals determine their activity. The most important NK cell receptors are the polymorphic killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR), which bind to HLA class I molecules on target cells. The enormous genetic and genomic diversity of the KIR/HLA system influences the susceptibility to various diseases. Here, we will give an overview of this system and its impact on HIV infection.
Komplementation von Genexpressionsmustern in Mais hybriden(S. 603)
Caroline Marcon, Jutta A. Baldauf, Frank Hochholdinger
Heterosis describes the superior performance of F1-hybrids compared to their genetically distinct parents, a phenomenon which is extensively exploited in maize breeding. To better understand the molecular basis of heterosis in maize, we analyzed how the genetic diversity of parental inbred lines affects the root transcriptome of their F1-progeny. We discovered complementation of activity in evolutionary younger genes and as a consequence more active genes in hybrids than in parental inbred lines.
Anwendungen & Produkte
Biotechnologische Herstellung terminaler Alkene und Diene(S. 614)
Alexander Denning, Anja Thiessenhusen, Stefan Gilch, Thomas Haas, Melanie Hall
1-Alkenes represent primary building blocks for the chemical industry. Here we show the development of a novel biosynthetic redox-cascade involving the P450 monooxygenase OleT and electron transfer proteins CamA and CamB to allow the biocatalytic synthesis of short chain alkenes such as propene or 1,4-pentadiene from fatty acids. The cascade is fully based on renewables and can be operated under mild reaction conditions as opposed to industrial alkene synthesis.
Shotgun Lipidomics in der biomedizinischen und klinischen Forschung(S. 617)
Christian Klose, Ünal Coskun
Shotgun lipidomics is the comprehensive and quantitative analysis of the lipid composition of biological and clinical samples. Here we describe the application and performance of the Lipotype shotgun lipidomics technology in clinical high throughput screening projects for the identification of disease-specific lipid patterns as well as in organ-wide analysis aiming at the systemic understanding of lipid-related physiological processes.
Biogasanlagen – Quelle oder Senke für Antibiotika-resistente Bakterien?(S. 656)
The aim of the study was the detection of potentially pathogenic and anti - biotic resistant bacteria in input and output samples of German biogas plants in order to assess a possible release into the environment. The abundance of potentially pathogenic and antibiotic resistant bacteria was lower in output samples. But, ESBL E. coli and vancomycin resistant enterococci were still culturable from output material. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) could not be detected by cultivation, but the mecA gene was also detected in output sample material of biogas plants.