Nutzpflanzen nachhaltig vor Krankheiten schützen?(S. 254)
Eva H. Stukenbrock, Heike Seybold, Janine Haueisen
Crops are constantly challenged by diverse environmental factors as well as attacking pests and pathogens. Here, we discuss one of the challenges agriculture is facing, using the important wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici as an example. We highlight the importance to study the fungal pathogen as well as the plant host and conclude that a better under - standing of plant-microbe interaction is essential to develop improved strategies for crop protection.
Bakterielle Multizellularität in Biofilmen(S. 258)
VAAM-Forschungspreis 2019 Bacteria have been extensively investigated in their unicellular mode of life in liquid cultures. However, biofilm communities are now considered to be the most abundant mode of bacterial life on Earth, and many properties and functions of biofilms are still unclear. Mechanistically understanding which properties and functions of biofilms emerge at the singlecell level, and which emerge at the multicellular level, presents a major challenge for biofilm research in the coming years.
Antigene Mimikry bei Uveitis(S. 261)
Antigenic mimicry is the immunological similarity of different antigens (proteins) from different origins, allowing cells of the immune system (here: T cells) to crossreact with all of them. Here we show examples how T cells are confused with peptides from a virus causing gastroenteritis, milk protein and an autoantigen from the eye, which can all induce uveitis, a destructive, potentially blinding autoimmune disease.
Wie lipid droplets mit ihrer Umgebung kommunizieren(S. 264)
Lipid droplets are multifunctional cellular organelles. To fulfill their diverse roles, they need to tightly communicate with the rest of the cell. Lipid droplet communication is likely predominantly mediated by contact sites, places where their surfaces are physically linked to partner organelles via specialized protein machineries. A recently identified example of proteins involved in positioning of lipid droplets adjacent to partner organelles is the lipid droplet organization (LDO) machinery.
Mikrobielle Symbiosen und die Evolution neuer Organellen(S. 268)
Eva Nowack, Linda Oberleitner, Georg Ehret
Mitochondria and plastids evolved more than one billion years ago from bacterial endosymbionts. Besides these organelles, there is a large diversity of more recently acquired bacterial endosymbionts that provide their hosts with diverse metabolic functions. We use the protists Paulinella chromatophora and Angomonas deanei as model systems to study the molecular mechanisms underpinning endosymbiotic interactions and the transformation of a bacterial endosymbiont into a genetically integrated organelle.
Höchstmögliche räumlich-zeitliche Auflösung in der Lichtmikroskopie(S. 271)
Peter L. Graumann, Simon Dersch, Benjamin Mayer, Daniel A. O. Rotter, Luis M. Oviedo-Bocanegra
Super resolution (SR) fluorescence microscopy techniques STED, SIM and PALM/STORM have revolutionized light microscopy and provide resolution of imaging way below the general limit of resolution as defined by the Abbe law. Single molecule tracking (SMT) allows the pursuit of movement of single proteins or lipids in real time, revealing in vivo dwell times and binding kinetics, a further milestone in live cell imaging. A combination of SR and SMT is a logical next evolution step in the goal to study dynamic processes in live cells at a maximal spatial and temporal resolution.
Regulation des shedding von Membranproteinen durch ADAM10(S. 275)
Balancing proteolysis of membrane proteins is relevant in many processes within the cell as both, the extracellular domain but also intracellular protein fragments can exert distinct functions. To ensure timely and spatially coordinated occurrence of such shedding events, many factors impact activity of the participating proteases. Here, I describe regulation of one such protease (ADAM10) via different transcription factors due to the respective physiological state of the cell.
Spezifisch – sicher – schnell: Nachweis von Influenzaviren(S. 278)
Dinah Henritzi, Annika Graaf, Timm Harder
Influenza viruses remain an imminent threat for animal and public health. Rapid and reliable diagnosis of acute infections are at the roots of meaningful control and prevention measures. Sensitive and highly specific reverse transcription real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) assays have revolutionized the diagnostic toolbox. RT-qPCRs for subtyping and pathotype characterization of animal influenza viruses provide advantages in individual diagnosis and for long term monitoring programs.
Anwendungen & Produkte
Effiziente DNA-Extraktion aus geringen Probenmengen(S. 298)
Wiktoria Banczyk, Mary Loten, Jonelle Thompson, Jessica Seifarth, Jon Drobac, Erica K. Graham, Anupama Gopalakrishnan
As the number of evidentiary samples submitted to clinical or forensic laboratories increases, so does the demand for automated system solutions which enable higher throughput and reliable results. Nucleic acid purification for downstream analysis must meet high requirements, since purity and yield determine the quality of final results. Promega’s Maxwell® Rapid Sample Concentrator 48 (RSC 48) provides a reliable purification method using an automated workflow for extraction of nucleic acid from a variety of sample types.
Mikrofluidischer Chip vereint QCM-D und mikroskopische Messungen(S. 300)
Frank K. Gehring, Adam L. J. Olsson, Paula Braun, Jin Zhang, Hartmut Drechsel, Albert Sterck, Gudrun Prepens, Thomas Reiner
Understanding surface adsorption processes is of importance in a wide range of applications in life sciences. Herein we present a novel QCM-D device in which real time quartz sensing can be combined with real-time microscopy and microfluidic functionality for e. g. lab-on-a-chip applications. The experimental data on bacterial adhesion and blood coagulation obtained by the combined approach of QCM-D and microscopy illustrate its usefulness for life sciences.
Kofaktor-Mikroarrays zur Identifikation von Kernrezeptorliganden(S. 303)
Philipp Demuth, Barbara Birk, Nadine Roth, Robert Landsiedel, Bennard Van Ravenzway
Different in vitro approaches exist to identify agonistic or antagonistic activity of chemical substances concerning nuclear receptors, since adverse effects in vivo can be the consequence. The recruitment of coregulators by nuclear receptors is a key step in the ligand-induced transcription of controlled genes. Therefore, the microarray assay for real-time coregulator-nuclear receptor interaction (MARCoNI) was tested in combination with a reporter cell assay as a screening tool in toxicology.
Organisch-chemisch stabilisierte Enzyme für eine nachhaltige Wirtschaft(S. 338)
Saskia Neubacher, Sven Hennig, Tom N. Grossmann
Advances in protein engineering have made the industrial use of enzymes feasible, though, a more wide-spread application is hampered by the limi - ted stability of enzymes under often required harsh conditions. We deve - loped a protein stabilization technology that involves the in situ cyclization of proteins (INCYPRO) and facilitates the design and semi-synthesis of multicyclic enzymes. These synthetically enhanced durable enzymes add to the current efforts towards a sustainable and green economy.