Die Ontogenese der Plattfische – außergewöhnliche Meeresbewohner(S. 361)
Flatfish are unique amongst fishes because of their extreme asymmetric body shape with both eyes on the upside and full depigmentation on the bottom side. During metamorphosis a primarily bilateral symmetric larvae turns into the flat adult body. Analysis of the whole genome sequence of the Japanese flounder revealed that retinoic acid signalling is critically involved in several processes that underlie the morphogenetic changes during metamorphosis.
Copy, paste, repeat – über die Synthese von Minimalzellen(S. 365)
Hannes Mutschler, Laura I. Weise, Kai Libicher
The creation of self-replicating minimal cells is a major goal in synthetic biology and origin of life research. In order to be considered alive, a minimal cell must have several characteristics such as the ability to reproduce and adapt to its environment. Our research focuses on genetic replication and evolution in such minimal systems.
DNA und RNA – mehr als nur Träger der genetischen Information(S. 368)
DNA and RNA – the nucleic acids within our cells – are more than information carrier in the flow of genetic information within biological systems. They fulfil very diverse functions in numerous cellular processes, such as the regulation of gene expression and cell signalling, they mediate protein interactions, control enzyme activity, can catalyse chemical reactions and are crucial for cellular immunity. Here, I discuss their multifaceted roles from a nucleic acids perspective.
Phagen-codierte metabolische Hilfsgene krempeln den Wirtsstoffwechsel um(S. 372)
Benjamin Ledermann, Nicole Frankenberg-Dinkel
Auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs) are commonly found in the genomes of marine cyanophages and on metagenomic scaffolds originating from phages. Many of them encode proteins involved in photosynthesis and are thought to increase phage fitness during infection. Here, we summarize the biochemical properties of AMG-encoded proteins involved in light harvesting pigment biosynthesis and assembly.
Sind konventionelle Kunststoffe mikrobiell abbaubar?(S. 375)
Conventional synthetic polymers such as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polystyrene (PS), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyurethane (PU), and polyamide (PA) belong to the most important plastics in terms of produced quantities, and comprise hydrolysable and nonhydrolysable polymers. This article highlights important aspects and limitations of the microbial de - gradability of these materials from a biochemical, physiological, and ecological perspective, and in the context of previous own work.
Schicksal von Mikrokernen und mikrokernhaltigen Zellen(S. 379)
Henning Hintzsche, Hauke Reimann, Helga Stopper
Young Scientist Toxicology Merck Award 2018 Micronuclei occur after mitosis and are a sign of genomic instability. Comprehensive studies about the fate of micronuclei are lacking, but several possibilities have been described: extrusion, reincorporation into the nucleus, degradation, persistence of the micronucleus and/or the cell, apoptosis and chromothripsis. It is not verified, if and to what extent micronuclei have the ability for replication, transcription or DNA damage repair. Further studies investigating the fate of micronuclei are necessary.
Genomweite polygene Werte revolutionieren die Intelligenzforschung(S. 382)
Sophie von Stumm
Intelligence – the ability to learn, reason and solve problems – predicts all important life outcomes and is highly heritable. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified inherited genome sequence differences that account for five percent of the variance in intelligence and thus, for ten percent of its heritability. These findings open new avenues for research into the causes and consequences of intelligence using genome-wide polygenic scores that aggregate the effects of thousands of DNA variants.
Maßgeschneiderte Liganden für Protein-Protein-Interaktionen(S. 387)
Christian Heid, Kyra Kujawski, Thomas Schrader
The de novo design of artificial modulators for protein protein inter - actions remains a premier challenge in chemical biology. This article summarizes latest developments on the area of small supramolecular binders for hot spots as well as large polymer materials suitable to address extended protein interfaces. In recent years novel chemical tools have evolved which allow to block or activate essential protein contacts at will.
Zelltypspezifische Proteommarkierung in vivo(S. 390)
Beatriz Alvarez-Castelao, Christoph Schanzenbächer, Susanne tom Dieck, Julian Langer, Erin Schuman
Cells carry out their functions using proteins. In response to stimuli they change the complement and number of proteins – the proteome. Although the proteome of mixed cell populations is accessible, it has not been possible to isolate the proteomes of individual cell types from living animals. We made transgenic mice with cell type specific expression of a modified enzyme incorporating an artificial amino acid. Proteins with this tag can be either visualized or identified by mass spectrometry.
Viele monoklonale Antikörper sind nicht monospezifisch(S. 395)
Sequencing of antibody mRNA of 185 randomly selected hybridoma clones revealed that an alarming third of them produces additional antibody chains. In case such chains are expressed, a single hybridoma cell secretes a mixture of IgG with different specificities. ELISA and immunohistology confirmed the negative effect of such additional chains on specificity and apparent affinity. Therefore, many monoclonal antibody preparations can be not monospecific.
Antikörper-Mikropatterns zur Analyse von Proteininteraktionen in Zellen(S. 400)
Cindy Dirscherl, Maria Iossifidou, Sebastian Springer
The study of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions at the cell surface is especially important for understanding many processes that are central to the life of the cell. Here, we present a novel two-hybrid assay based on antibody micropatterns that allows the visualization, measurement, and quantification of such interactions in the natural environment of the cell. We demonstrate the potential of our micropatterns with an immunological example.
Molekulare Mechanismen selektiver Autophagie(S. 404)
Autophagy is a conserved transport pathway that degrades cytosolic material to generate energy or prevent accumulation of harmful material. Selective autophagy targets a defined cargo for degradation. The key factor Atg8 interacts with multiple proteins in order to execute its functions in vesicles biogenesis during selective autophagy. Therefore, its conjugation to the autophagic membrane is organized by Atg21. We aim for mechanistic insights into the assembly of the different Atg8 complexes.
Enzymgesteuerte Indigoproduktion(S. 446)
Dirk Tischler, Thomas Heine, Carolin Großmann, Sarah Hofmann
Indole is an important compound in nature and is present in many pathways. First, an overview is given on the oxidative conversions of indole and respective products formed. A focus is put on the formation of pure indigo and some derivatives. Thus, flavin-dependent monooxygenases (styrene epoxidases) were employed which allow the selective oxygenation of indole leading to pure products without the formation of by-pro - ducts as indirubin or isoindigo.