BIOspektrum Fernstudium

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Leseprobe

Hier finden Sie "Appetithäppchen" aus dem aktuellen BIOspektrum-Heft.

Wissenschaft

Assemblierung des CuA -Zentrums in bakterieller Cytochrom-Oxidase

 (S. 603)
Hauke Hennecke, Rudolf Glockshuber, Fabia Canonica

The CuA cofactor in cytochrome oxidase of mitochondria and many aerobic prokaryotes is a di-copper metal center that catalyzes one-electron transfer from cytochrome c to the oxygen-reducing active site. How the two copper ions are brought together for assembly of CuA is reported here. A thioredoxin-like disulfide reductase and two dedicated metallochaperones, one for Cu2+ and one for Cu1+ , cooperate in this process. Copper insertion into cytochrome oxidase proceeds by a previously unknown mechanism.

Mutters kleine Helfer? – Konsequenzen mikrochimärischer Zellen

 (S. 607)
Christopher Urbschat, Petra A. Arck

Feto-maternal microchimerism describes the vertical, transplacental bidirectional transfer of cells during pregnancy. The resulting cellular microchimerism in the respective hosts remains for decades. Insights into the functional role of such microchimerism for maternal and offspring’s immunity are still ambiguous. We here review potential health advantages as well as disadvantages related to feto-maternal microchimerism.

Same same but different: Wie Cyanobakterien ein zentrales Enzym regulieren

 (S. 610)
Stephan Klähn

In most bacteria the activity of glutamine synthetase (GS) is regulated by covalent protein modifications. Remarkably, cyanobacteria, which are of increasing interest in biotechnology, have evolved fundamentally different regulatory mechanisms for the same enzyme. This includes GS inhibition by the interaction with small proteins, the inactivating factors (IF). In addition, they evolved unique mechanisms to monitor GS activity and to respond with IF biosynthesis accordingly.

Ferroptose: Tod durch Eisenabhängige Lipidperoxidation

 (S. 614)
Svenja Lorenz, Marcus Conrad

Ferroptosis is an oxidative form of necrotic cell death highly relevant for many degenerative diseases and cancer. Ferroptosis is marked by irondependent lipid peroxidation and is distinct from other cell death modalities. Glutathione peroxidase 4 is the key ferroptosis player as it efficiently controls lipid peroxidation. Transgenic mice and animal models of disease have shown which cells and tissues are prone to undergo ferroptosis. The discovery of novel ferroptosis inhibitors and inducers thus offers the great potential in the development of innovative drugs to treat yet incurable diseases.

Molekulare Muster von strahlungsbedingtem Brustkrebs

 (S. 617)
Kristian Unger, Horst Zitzelsberger

Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignant disease in women. Amongst other risk factors such as age, life style, genetic factors and hormone status, exposure to ionizing irradiation is a known risk factor. Markers of radiation-associated breast cancer have been now identified at the DNA-, miRNA- and protein levels providing the starting point for the identification and personalized treatment of secondary, radiation-induced breast cancer.

Zu einer schnelleren und besseren individualisierten Diagnostik

 (S. 620)
Irene Burckhardt

Total lab automation automates inoculation, incubation and analysis of human specimens. It enables the laboratory to shorten incubation times and significantly reduce the time to report. It improves the quality of microbiologic analysis by increasing the number of grown organisms. In the future it will enable automatic reading and fully automated identification and susceptibility testing of bacteria.

Moderne genombasierte Klassifikation von Bakterien und Archaeen

 (S. 624)
Jan P. Meier-Kolthoff

Prokaryotic taxonomy is increasingly informed by genome sequencebased approaches, but the proper choice of input data and methods is not trivial. The recently introduced Type (Strain) Genome Server (TYGS) is a user-friendly high-throughput webserver for genome-based taxonomy of prokaryotes, connected to a large, growing database of type-strain genomes and related data on taxonomy and nomenclature. TYGS helps scientists to quickly address various taxonomic questions.

Lichtsignale für die Hefe

 (S. 628)
Sophia Hasenjäger, Johannes Scheffer, Jonathan Trauth, Christof Taxis

Natural photoreceptors from plants and microorganisms are used for synthetic approaches to control cell behaviour. Light perception by the photoreceptor, often by a cofactor, induces a conformational change, which is transduced to the effector and regulates its activity. Synthetic combinations of photoreceptors and effectors resulted in a wealth of cellular events that are controlled by optogenetic tools. A general approach is to regulate protein abundance controlling either protein stability, protein biosynthesis or both with optogenetic tools.

Clostridioides difficile-Toxine verändern das Proteom von Darmzellen

 (S. 633)
Andreas Pich, Florian Stieglitz, Theresa Schweitzer, Johannes Junemann

Toxins produced by Clostridioides difficile inactivate small GTPases leading to re organization of cellular processes, cell death, and in the worst case death of patients. We explore the molecular effects of these toxins on target cells using LC-MS-based proteome and phosphoproteome techniques. Sample preparation with extensive fractionation is highly important for LC-MS-based studies to increase depths of proteome coverage and affinity chromatography is crucial to detect as many phospho - peptides as possible.

Neuen Drogen auf der Spur mittels Chromatographie und MS

 (S. 637)
Lea Wagmann, Sascha K. Manier, Markus R. Meyer

New psychoactive substances (NPS) are an emerging topic in analytical toxicology. They can lead to severe and even fatal intoxications whether intentionally or unintentionally consumed. To detect them in human biosamples, hyphenated mass spectrometry (MS) is currently the gold standard. We will highlight in this article the role of chromatography coupled MS in the field of NPS analysis and discuss prerequisites and recent developments.

Trennung schwer löslicher Carotinoide mit umweltschonenden Lösungsmitteln

 (S. 640)
Caroline Autenrieth, Robin Ghosh

Many organic solvents for resolving apolar C40 carotenoids with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) are harmful for human health. It is thought that aggressive solvents are required to prevent aggregation during sample delivery. However, the methoxylated C40 carotenoid spirilloxanthin, and its apolar precursors can be resolved with a C18 column and the safe solvent system methanol/tetrahydrofuran, and an optimized delivery solvent mixture of low toxicity.

Anwendungen & Produkte

Mischen von Tröpfchen im Flug zum ortsaufgelösten 3D-Druck von Hydrogelen

 (S. 650)
Frank-Ulrich Gast, Frank Baudisch, Toni Bohatzsch, Thomas Wegener, Ralf Zimmermann

Piezoelectric dispensers are widely used for microarrays. We have developed a “twin pipette” head to mix two droplets of reactive polymer solutions in flight and on the target. Two dispensers can pivot to either a straight (for sample uptake, washing) or an inclined position (for dispensing). We show how two precursor solutions, with or without cells, cross - link immediately after printing, allowing for complex 3D cell cultures in spatially graded hydrogels with structure sizes ≥ 50 μm.

Biotechnologie

Chirale Epoxidierung von Aryl-Alkyl-Ethern aus Lignin

 (S. 680)
Dirk Tischler, Daniel Eggerichs, Anna C. Lienkamp, Carolin Mügge, Thomas Heine

Processing of lignin provides access to mono-aromatic compounds with a styrene-like structure. The vinyl sidechain can be attacked by monooxy - genases, such as styrene or indole monooxygenases, to yield enantiopure epoxides. The obtained epoxides can be converted into valuable products, either enzyme- or non-enzyme driven. This provides access to drug-like molecules and technically relevant synthesis precursors. Herein, we report the setup of a simple screening strategy for useful epoxidases.

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Special

Aktuell: Chromatogrphie

Aktuell: Chromatogrphie

Die Chromatographie ist ein Trennverfahren, das die Verteilung der Komponenten eines Stoffgemischs aufgrund ihrer physikalischen und chemischen Eigenschaften in einer stationären und einer mobilen Phase erlaubt. Bei der Flüssigchromatographie erfolgt die Trennung eines flüssigen Gemischs (mobile Phase) auf Silikagelen, Polymeren oder entsprechend bestückten Chromatographiesäulen (stationäre Phase). Bei der Gaschromatographie ist die mobile Phase gasförmig und die stationäre Phase eine Trägersäule, die meist mit flüssigen/niedrig viskosen Polyorganosiloxanen beschichtet ist. In den Biowissenschaften sind hochentwickelten Verfahren wie die U/HPLC (Ultra/High Performance Liquid Chromatography) oder Kombinationen von chromatographischen Methoden mit Massenspektrometrie bei der Aufreinigung von Proteinen, Natur- und Wirkstoffen von großer Bedeutung. Hintergrundbild: Mit diesen Chromatographiesäulen haben Wissenschaftler um Dr. E. Tuddenham vom The Royal Free Hospital, London, Anfang der 1980er Jahre das antihämophile Globulin A, ein rekombinanter Blutgerinnungsfaktor, isoliert. Bild: Chromatography columns, United Kingdom and Sweden,1975–1985. Credit: Science Museum, London. CC BY 4.0, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

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Marktübersicht

Aktuell: Temperiertechnik

Hier finden Sie alle Marktübersichten aus den Jahren 2005 bis 2019. Zuletzt erschienen ist: Pipettierautomaten (06/19).

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