Das Rätsel der Sphinx – Mechanismen der zellulären Sphingolipidhomöostase(S. 704)
Sergej Limar, Florian Fröhlich
Sphingolipids are abundant and essential molecules in eukaryotes that have crucial functions as signalling molecules and as membrane components. They are important for many processes, including endocytic transport and plasma membrane integrity. Pathological changes in sphingo - lipid levels are associated with many common pathologies, ranging from obesity and cancer to neurodegenerative diseases and genetic disorders. Here we discuss the molecular mechanisms of cells to maintain sphingo - lipid homeostasis.
Komplexe Wechselwirkungen zwischen Arzneimitteln und dem Mikrobiom(S. 707)
Our knowledge regarding the interplay between drugs, our microbiome, and the host has long been restricted to a few exceptional cases. Recent evidence from more systematic studies reveals that the majority of commonly used drugs underlie such interactions. This highlights the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the interface between pharmacology, microbial ecology, environmental factors, and the host genotype.
Regulation des Angstverhaltens – zur Rolle neuronaler Netzwerke(S. 711)
Jan M. Deussing, Nina Dedic
The corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) system orchestrates the organism’s stress response including the regulation of adaptive be - haviours. Here we describe a novel neuronal circuit, which acts anxiety suppressing and positively modulates dopamine release. This anxiolytic circuit comprises inhibitory CRH-expressing, long-range projection neurons within the extended amygdala. These neurons innervate the ventral tegmental area, a prominent brain reward center that expresses high levels of CRH receptor type 1.
Cytochrome P450 – vielseitige Enzyme für Medizin und Biotechnologie(S. 715)
Vlada B. Urlacher, Rita Bernhardt
Cytochromes P450 are heme containing enzymes that catalyze numerous oxidation reactions including hydroxylation of non-activated CH-bonds, epoxidation, dealkylation and even C-C bond cleavage. Along with their broad substrate spectrum, P450s often possess high regio-, chemo-, and stereoselectivity, thereby playing an essential role in metabolism. Due to their versatility P450s are the rising stars in biotechnological applications and synthetic biology.
Kleine Zellen, große Wirkung – Bakterien der Candidate Phyla Radiation(S. 719)
Alexander J. Probst, Andreas Klingl, Indra Monsees
Recent genomic studies indicate that the diversity of the so-called Candidate Phyla Radiation (CPR) comprises approximately 26 percent of the entire catalogued biodiversity. These bacteria are characterized by small cell-size and a reduced metabolism. In this review, we provide a short overview of their diversity and ecological distribution, particularly with respect to the human microbiome. We finally summarize cultivation attempts and known symbioses and provide insights into their known metabolism.
Proteinkomplexe an inhibitorischen Synapsen in psychiatrischen Störungen(S. 722)
Organizational protein complexes at inhibitory postsynapses in the brain play a key role in regulating the flow of information through neuronal networks, and accordingly, abnormalities in these complexes can contribute to the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Recent research indicates that the molecular composition of these complexes is highly diverse and synapse-specific, posing major challenges for basic research but also offering opportunities for potential clinical applications.
Translokation bakterieller Effektorproteine – live und in Farbe(S. 727)
Vera Göser, Michael Hensel
Intracellular pathogens thrive by invading host cells, thereby creating protected replicative niches. The manipulation of host cells is accomplished by means of translocated bacterial effector proteins. The ability to track effector proteins during an infection is essential to understand hostpathogen interaction. Here, we describe a novel method to target bac - terial effector proteins using Salmonella enterica as a model organism and deploying self-labeling enzyme tags.
Interferenz von Licht macht einzelne unmarkierte Proteine sichtbar(S. 732)
André Gemeinhardt, Vahid Sandoghdar
iSCAT microscopy is a powerful tool for the optical detection and visualization of small nanoparticles, down to single unlabeled proteins. In this overview, we give an introduction to the method´s principles and benefits and show how it can be applied to monitor protein secretion of single living cells with single-protein sensitivity at millisecond temporal resolution.
Molekulare Kontrolle der Zellform und Zellbewegung bei Drosophila(S. 737)
Sven Bogdan, Wiebke Milani
The development and maintenance of tissues and organs require dynamic changes and adaptions in cell shape. The actin cytoskeleton is pivotal for directional changes in cell shape and cell migration during morphogenesis and pathogenesis. The fruit fly is an ideal genetic model system to identify the regulatory network controlling cell shape and cell migration.
Anwendungen & Produkte
Messung der Bindungsaffinität von Protein-Protein-Interaktionen(S. 754)
Sebastian Fiedler, Maren Butz, Haris Choudhery, Sean Devenish
A new technology, microfluidic diffusional sizing (MDS), can be used to assess the binding affinity of proteins in both simple and complex backgrounds with high precision. Whereas most techniques for quantitative analysis of protein-protein interactions require lengthy purification, MDS can avoid this often complex step, opening up the possibility to investigate difficult-to-study proteins. It also means that detailed binding analyses can be performed earlier, avoiding purification and providing insight sooner.
Lösungsansätze entlang der chemischen Wertschöpfungskette(S. 786)
In this article, the high potential of biocatalysis as a versatile tool to address industrial challenges is illustrated by three examples from our own research, which was done, in part, jointly with companies from the chemical industry. In these examples, biocatalytic processes were deve - loped for products from different industrial segments. In detail, the pro - ducts being obtained by the presented bioprocesses are from the areas of polymer building blocks, lubricant components and pharmaceuticals.